Authors: Sadam Hussain Chandio & Sanjrani Manzoor Ahmed & Waqar Saleem & Saad Naeem & Seerat ul Ain Bhutto & Muneer Ahmed Sanjrani
Abstract: Clean drinking water is the basic needs of human-beings. Contamination in drinking water is the most prominent issue in the rural and urban areas of the developing countries. Rate of causalities is increasing because of water borne diseases which is due to rapid rise in urbanization which sequentially leads to elevation of water pollution level. World Health Organization (WHO) bears that almost three billion people are the effectives of unsafe water. Developing countries like Pakistan have a growing urbanization rate 31 to 34% whereas accessibility of safe drinking water has declined more than 40 percent. The present research was conducted to examine the water quality characteristics of Rawal Dam Reservoir, Islamabad, Pakistan. Water samples were randomly collected from streams and mid of the Dam. Standard methods were used to determine the physiological parameters. Chemical parameters were also assessed in the samples by using UV Visible Spectrophotometer and standard method. The results obtained were compared with Pak-EPA standard limit, the concentration of Physical and chemical parameters were above the permissible limits made by Pak-EPA in different streams as well as in Rawal dam.
Keywords: Physiochemical Evaluation, Water Quality, Drinking Water, Water Supply, Safe Drinking Water Rawal Dam, Pakistan
Download the PDF Document from here.
Ali, S.M., & Malik, R.N. (2010). Spatial patterns of vegetation with underlying soil properties prevailing along drain side Areas in Islamabad city. Pak. J. Bot. 42, 2397-2410.
Anwar, M., Chaudhry, N., & Tayyib, M. (2004). Qualitative assessment of bacteriological quality and chlorination status of drinking water in Lahore. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 14, 157–160
Aziz, J. (2002). National water quality strategy. Report submitted to The Asian Development Bank as part of water resources strategy study, ADB, TA 3130 PAK, Islamabad, Ministry of Water and Power.
Brahman, K.D., Kazi, T.G., Afridi, H.I., Naseem, S., Arain, S., & Ullah, N. (2013). Evaluation of high levels of fluoride, arsenic species and other physicochemical parameters in underground water of two sub districts of Tharparkar, Pakistan: A multivariate study. Water Research, 47, 1005–1020.
Chilton, P. J. (2000). Pakistan water quality mapping and management project. Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS) Islamabad, Federal Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan.
Chudhary, H. J. (2012). In vitro analysis of cupressus l. plant extract antibaterial activity. Journal of Mwdicinal Plants Research, 273-276.
Hansen, J., Sato, M., & Ruedy, R. (2012). Perception of climate change. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science of the United State of America, 1-9.
Hussain, M., Rasool, S.A., Khan, M.T., & Wajid, A. (2007). Enterococci vs coliforms as a possible fecal contamination indicator: Baseline data for Karachi. Pak J Pharm Sci, 20, 107–111.
Kosek, M., Bern, C., & Guerrant, R. (2003). The global burden of diarrhoeal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81(3), 197–204.
Mahessar, A.A., Memon, N.A., Leghari, M.E.H., Qureshi, A.L., & Arain, G.M. (2015). Assessment of source and quality of drinking water in coastal area of Badin, Sindh, Pakistan, IOSR. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT).
Naeem, K., Syed, T., Javid, H., Nargis, J., Shabir, A., Riaz, U., Zain, U., & Abdus, S. (2012). Physiochemical evaluation of the drinking water sources from district Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Pakistan, International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, 4(10), 302-313.
PAK-EPA. State of Environment Report 2005. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA) Ministry of Environment, Govt. of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Sahu, B., Rao, R., & Behra, 1995, Studies of some physico-chemical characteristic of the Ganga River (Rishikesh –Kanpur) within twenty four hours during winter. Ecol. Env. Cons, 1(1-4), 35-38.
Sanjrani, M., Mek, T., Sanjrani, N., Leghari, S., Moryani, H., Shabnam, A., (2017). Current situation of aqueous arsenic contamination in Pakistan, Focused on Sindh and Punjab province, Pakistan: A review. J Pollut Eff Cont, 5, 207. doi:10.4176/2375-4397.1000207,
Sanjrani, M., Talpur, H., Talpur, S. (2018). Physio-Chemical assessment of water sources for drinking purpose in Badin City, Sindh Province, Pakistan, (Water Supply Schemes and Hand Pumps). Advance Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Discoveries, 29(7), 38-44.
Sanjrani, M., Zhou, B., Zhao, H., Bhutto, S., Muneer, A.,& Xia, S. (2019). Arsenic contaminated groundwater in china and its treatment options: A review. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 17(2), 1655-1683. http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1702_16551683
Sarwar, G., Khan, J., Iqbal, R., Afridi, A.K., Khan, A., & Sarwar, R. (2004). Bacteriological analysis of drinking water from urban and peri-urban areas of Peshawar. Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute, Khyber Medical College, Peshawar, 18, 64–69.
Science net (2018). Retrieved from http://sciencenetlinks.com/science-news/science-updates/artificial-wetlands/
Shiklomanov, I. A. (1998). World water resources. A new apprasial and assessment for the 21st century (pp. 1-230). Fontenoy: United Nation Educational, scientific Cultural Organization.
Soomro, Z., Khokhar, M., Hussain, W., & Hussain, M. (2011). Drinking water quality challenges in Pakistan. World Water Day, pp. 17–28.
WHO (2011). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/2011/en/
WHO (2011). World health statistics. Geneva: World Health organization.
WWF (2007). Pakistan’s waters at risk, Water and health related issues in Pakistan and key recommendations. pp. 1–33 A special report, WWF — Pakistan, Ferozepur Road, Lahore— 54600, Pakistan.
Yousaf, A., Shabbir, R., Jabeen, A., Erum, S., & Ahmad, S. (2016). Linkage between herbaceous vegetation and soil characteristics along rawal dam Islamabad. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr, 16(1). http:// dx.doi.org/ 10.4067/S0718-95162016005000007
Zahoorullah, T. A., & Zai, S. (2003). Quality of drinking water in rural Peshawar. Pak J Med Res, 42, 85–89.